remarkable engine translates entire paragraphs
back and forth between English, French, German, Italian,
Portuguese, and Spanish with remarkable accuracy.
An experimental Java applet
with a built-in keyboard for those
who don't have their own. From Xerox Research Center Europe.
Schematization in Assamese Classifiers by Jugal K. Kalita
The concept of schematization
has been discussed at length in the context of English spatial
prepositions. In this paper, Kalita shows that the idea of
space schematization also applies to an extended set of classifiers
or enclitical definitives that are found in an Indo-European
language called Assamese.
Language Comparison by Raymond Weisling
A comparison of core vocabulary
of 13 Austronesian languages, including
Indonesian, Javanese, Balinese, Sundanese, Madurese, Sawu,
Tagalog, Maori, Fijian, Hawaiian, Malagasy, and Rapanui.
and Greenough's New Latin Grammar
An on-line version of the classic
Latin grammar book contributed
and maintained by James O'Donnell.
Brief Latin Grammatical Aid
This grammar reference list
presently contains two sections: examples of translations
for the various uses of several noun cases, and the endings
for regular nouns, adjectives, active verbs, and present participles.
Later editions will increase this coverage.
Tense and Aspect
A substantial treatment of
Tense and Aspect by Basque
with a short bibliography by Martin Haase.
Sponsored by Sav-heol,
an association based in Rennes which teaches
evening courses and promotes the Breton language.
Hristo Krushkov of the University
of Plodiv maintains this morphological analyzer of Bulgarian.
Insert an entire Bulgarian sentence and each word will
be identified and analyzed.
Alternatively, you may enter any two agreeing words and check
A Spanish verb conjugator.
Type in the verb stem and it will be conjugated.
A dictionary and electronic
verb conjugator of 15 different languages: Catalan, Dutch,
English, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Italian, Latin,
Occitan, Old English, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish
and Swedish. An excellent language-learning tool.
Morphology: Introduction to the ALE-RA System by Colin Matheson
How to run ALE -ra
on the Centre For Cognitive Science/Human Communication Research
Centre machines; also describes briefly the main commands
to compile lexicon files and view the results.
Contains one hundred
'new' words from the Independent newspaper for the
period January to March 1994. The words have been selected
from an original list of 11,699 types which were identified
as being new by filtering software developed by the University
of Liverpool Research and Development Unit for English Studies
during the AVIATOR Project, 1990 - 1993.
Ergative State of Early Proto-Indo-European by Hans-Joachim
Examines briefly the
syntactic structure, the origin of the case system and verbal
affixes in Proto-Indo-European. If the link doesn't work,
You insert the infinitive
and select the verbal tense, voice, and mood, and the INFL
analyzer will give you the conjugation. The INFL analyzer
is a licensed product of the MultiLingual Theory and Technology
team at the Rank Xerox Research Center in Grenoble,
France made available to ARTFL through a technology exchange
agreement. The principal developers of INFL are Lauri Karttunen
and Annie Zaenen.
The ARTFL Project: morphological
analysis using the INFL analyzer allows you to enter one or
more French words (lower case only, no punctuation) at the
prompt and returns the context-free morphological analysis
for each term.
German Morphological Analyzer
There isn't much information
about the analyzer on the site but it seems to work well.
The Perseus Project: morphological
analysis using the morphological analyzer allows you to enter
one or more Greek words in Latin transliteration at the prompt
and returns the morphological analysis for each term.
A table of the simplest
verb structure conjugation. Displayed the past tense of "Binyan
Kal". The root *ktv 'to write' is conjugated in both
genders, singular and plural.
Full-Text Search (Hindi-Japanese)
Type in a word and its inflectional
type and this analyzer will give you all the
appropriate forms (I think). This page is in Japanese and
requires Japanese fonts.
Morphological Analyzer (Tagger)
Type in a phrase or word and
this analyzer will identify the parts of speech and their
morphological functions. Written by Vasu Renganathan of the
University of Pennsylvania.
Similar are Estonian and Finnish?
This article by Eugene
Holman of the University of Helsinki discusses the
declensions and conjugations of both languages.
CELEX Morphological Analyzer of English
This search engine provides
morphological analysis and information from
a data base provided by CELEX.
to German Grammar
A temporary resource for
learning beginning German or reviewing German provided by
Gary Smith of William & Mary. It contains the basic paradigms
of nouns, adjective, and verbs.
Paola Monachesi is a post
doc at the Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft at the University
of Tübingen. It contains her dissertation and several
articles on Italian clitics which may be downloaded.
Honorific pronouns and
affixes by Robert Matthews from a posting by Steve Pearl.
Parser and Translator
A beta or developers copy
of a Visual Basic program which Adam McLean designed to assist
people in translating from Latin into English. I am making
this available in the hope that it might help people undertake
some translations (download).
Noyer, Features, Positions and Affixes in Autonomous Morphological
This thesis develops a theory of the mapping from the output
of syntactic rules to the input to phonology within a component
of Morphology. Three types
of information are shown to be independently manipulable in
deriving fully inflected words: morphosyntactic features,
material (affixes), and positions-of-exponence.
Research Corporation's Morphological Analyzer for English,
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, and German
These finite-state analyzers
have been compiled using two-level morphology
These morphological analyzers are also used in XRCE's part-of-speech
Roots of Mambila: Convergence and divergence in the
development of Mambila by Bruce Connell
This paper shows that Mambila
comprises two major dialect clusters, though the division
is not that envisaged by previous researchers. This paper
provides evidence of a new division among Mambila dialects
and then explores the relative roles of divergence and convergence
in Mambila and what the Mambila situation can tell us about
of language change more generally.
Guide to Wheelock's Latin Grammar
This study guide by Dale
Grote of UNC Charlotte has been converted to HTML by Tony
It contains many conjugation and declension paradigms to supplement
(The original resides at Wiretap.)
Morphological Analyzer (Licensed)
This C/C++ morphological
analyzer that makes use of the ARIES Spanish lexical interface
listed on the same page. This permits to improve efficiency
by integrating word segmentation with lexical access also.
By now, it is a (pseudo)-unification chart based parser for
context-free morphological grammars.
la dérivation des mots en -able-ible et -uble
The table of contents,
introduction, and conclusion of a larger work by Michel Billard-Sirakawa
published by Le Centre de Ressources et de Maintenance en
Logiciels d'Orleans. This site includes a bibliography and
a list of other publications of the center.
A preliminary report
by Ellen Contini-Morava on a two-phase study of the semantics
and syntax of noun classification in Swahili. Phase I, the
topic of the present paper, is an investigation of the semantic
structure of the noun classes, from a cognitive-semantic perspective.
Developed using the
two-level transducer technology developed by Xerox.
It can process about 900 forms/sec on Sparc station 10/41,
though industrial strength versions of the SW work significantly
faster. This implementation of Turkish
uses about 30,000 Turkish root words.
may download the executable
A comparative study of all
the morphological features of the Uralic and Altaic languages.
Conjugational Endings and Irregular Forms
The appendix of an on-line
Welsh grammar by Mark Nodine.
The rest of the grammar may be accessed through the built-in
Word Manager is a system
for the acquisition and management of reusable morphological
and phrasal dictionaries. It has a knowledge acquisition component
and a knowledge representation which enable a more flexible
use than typical finite-state systems.
An on-line lexical reference
system whose design is inspired by current theories of human
lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs
are organized into synonym sets, each representing one underlying
lexical concept. Different relations link the synonym sets.
A very useful script
that analyzes text you put in for word (token) frequency.
Order and Negation in Nahuatl: A Cross Dialect Study
An exploration of the rich
variation in word order (non-configurationalty)
of the Nahuatl language written in the framework of Chomsky's
Principles and Parameters.
Tree Adjoining Parser
An on-going project
to develop a wide-coverage grammar for English using a feature-based
and lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar formalism. XTAG also
serves as an system for the development of TAGs and consists
of a predictive left-to-right parser, an X-windows interface,
a morphological analyzer, and a part-of-speech tagger (download).